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Our customer is an industrial house developing a super luxury building that is the tallest in India. At 220m, the building houses tallest atrium in the world. The dimensions of the building are so unique that the national building codes do not apply to them. The building being tall requires elaborate safety measures in case of fires including ventilation of smoke in prescribed time. Visibility of the residents during fire was also top concern for design as visibility loss causes panic. CFD studies were to give inputs on the smoke movement due to various fires and also provide inputs to the building management system in case of an emergency.

Studies were done for fires ranging from 10 MW to 40 MW on various locations at the base of the atrium and on upper floors. Since the effect of ambient air in different seasons can affect ventilation patterns, metrology data was obtained and simulations were done for various seasons including the rainy season with high relative humidity.

(a) 40 MW fire (b) 10 MW fire (c) Time history of smoke.

Simulations showed that the increase in temperature in the atrium was negligible as the volume of the atrium is large. In case of ambient air with relative humidity, cold smoke phenomenon was occurring where smoke would not clear the living area due to the chimney effect. Mechanical ventilation required to vent out the smoke within prescribed time was estimated and provided as input to the building management system. For fires in the living area, duct tapping were designed and the mechanical ventilation capacity required was estimated. Equidistant placement of smoke detection sensors was found to be inadequate and locations were changed for early detection. The inputs from CFD studies have gone into the building management system.